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Juglans nigra

(Common name:- Black walnut)

Classification

Juglans nigra

History

Black walnut is flowering tree in the family juglandaceae of genus Juglans.

It is native to North America, but mostly found in southern Ontario, west to southeast South Dakota, south to Georgia, northern Florida, and in central Texas.

Black walnut is commercially cultivated in many parts of the world and traded.

Plant Description

The leaves of black walnut are alternate, pinnately compound and 12 to 24 inches long having numerous leaflets.

The growing leaflets are ovate-lanceolate, serrated and 2- 3 inches long in slightly pale yellowish-green colour.

Flowers are monoecious as the male are single stemmed catkins while female are short spikes bearing near the end in yellow-green colour.

Fruit is round, thick with 2 to 3 inches in diameter and green husk. This husk contains furrowed hard nut containing oily, sweet edible substance.

The tree is long growing to 50 to 120 feet tall having dark brown furrowed bark and flattened ridges.

Cultivation

Black walnut best grows in well-drained fertile and moist soils. Soils required for its cultivation are sandy, loamy, silt loam and silt clay loam.

Black walnut best thrives near river terraces, hillside benches, and hilly terrain.

Parts Used

Wood, bark, fruit.

Constituents

Tannins, volatile oil, omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin C, B1, B2 and beta-carotene.

Uses

Black walnut provides a distinct flavor to the preparations and usually the nutmeat is edible as dry fruit.

Some of the common uses of walnut are in ice creams, sweet dishes, baking and confection.

Black walnut is also added to cakes, pies, and in foods like salads, pasta, and fish, and pork, chicken and vegetable dishes.

Black walnut contains some active constituents which makes a dye used for hair.

The wood of black walnut tree is prized for its hardness and heaviness. Wood of this fruit has been used from centuries for making furniture gunstocks, flooring, coffins and paddles.

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